There are 3 areas that you can get a house.
The first is in Golden Plains and it has the lowest rent but is hard to access by lower levels.
The second is Aven which has the highest rent but is easily accessible by all.
The last one is in your guild's town if it has one and it has no rent at all, the only downside being that guildless people and people who's guild has no town yet cannot enter your house.
To begin renting a house you have to first find the inn keeper in the area you want to rent a house. Once you've found the innkeeper you can talk to them and pick the option "Manage or Visit Rooms in Town". In the new window all you do is press "Rent Room" and you've got a house all to yourself. Be super careful of the rent though, it does get expensive if you have a house in an area that has rent.
Now to put up furniture into a house you have to first visit it. From the window where you started to rent a room click the button "Enter Home". Once inside your house just talk to the chest and select the option "Open My Furniture Warehouse". In this new window you can put in all your furniture in. Once the furniture is in the new window, just click the button in the bottom right of the window to show the furniture somewhere in your home.
Hope this helps and if you have any other questions just ask.